Monday, June 29, 2015

Unleash the Mutant Mantises! At Maggie Daley, Michael Van Valkenburgh rethinks the Chicago Lakefront Park - Episode Two: The Lampposts Strike Back

(click images for larger view)
photograph courtesy Bob Johnson
Yesterday, we wrote about the most successful parts of Chicago's new Maggie Daley Park.   Perhaps not coincidentally, they're the most active parts of architect Michael Van Valkenburgh's design.  Van Valkenburgh does active really, really well.  Who would have guessed, then, that he had a bit of H R Giger secreted in his heart, or that he would use Maggie Daley as the opportunity to set it free.
Across the world, there have been many cases of discarded industrial infrastructure transformed into lush, green parks, but possibly never before has a new park deliberately been designed for nature to be dominated by the hardware.
These are the lightning standards of Maggie Daley Park.  There are thirteen of them, and they are monsters, perversely dominating almost every vista.
In an interview with Chicago Tribune architecture critic Blair Kamin, Van Valkenburgh explained Maggie Daley's lighting design as "a concept called moon lighting; many fewer and much taller light poles.  We did this at Brooklyn Bridge Park to great affect."

This is disingenuous. The lighting standards in Brooklyn Bridge Park are 35 foot-high telephone poles.  Those at Maggie Daley are 50 foot-high tripods.  At Brooklyn Bridge Park, many of the poles are set along the back, against an expressway that forms the parks perimeter.  At Maggie Daley, the standards are omnipresent, their beady light-bulb orbs always peering over your shoulder like the eyes of a painting that follow you across the room.  They march through the park like an invading band of colossi bent on conquest - over half as tall as the actual Wonder of the Ancient World Colossus of Rhodes.  Looking up at the soaring, man-spreading height, the voice of Shelly may even seem to echo in your ear . . .
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!

But, you may ask, won't the trees eventually overtake and tame the lighting standards?  You should live so long - literally.
Van Valkenburgh told Kamin it will take a decade for the trees to double in size. After 25 years, those trees will still be only "close to mature."  Van Valkenburgh's own presentation drawings show the standards rising above the mature treetops.  To put this into perspective, the previous park on the site lasted less than 40 years before it had to be destroyed to repair the parking garage below.  If the same calculus holds true for Maggie Daley, it means there may only be a decade and a half of relative balance between the lighting standards and the trees before the whole thing gets ripped out again.
Despite Van Valkenburgh's aesthetic pretensions, his design is actually both product of and perfect design expression of three imperatives of the relentless, increasingly toxic efficiencies of our Age of Supply Chain:  consolidation, upscaling and homogenization.  Instead of a traditional park's hundreds of lighting fixtures, Maggie Daley boils it down to 13.  In place of the human-scale, a looming super-sizing.  Instead of a pleasing variation in light and shade, a monotonous slather of uniform foot-candles, accompanied by a slick p.r. campaign: it's like the moon! The gigantic standards make Maggie Daley feel less like a park than a high school athletic field. 
Having said all this, I'll be the first to admit that the standards have their own fascination.  They're a visually arresting urban-techno theater, a brazen, seductive counterpoint not only to nature, but to the constructed environment of the Randolph Street and landmarked Michigan Avenue streetwalls, bent on upstaging the height of even the tallest classic skyscraper.
My bet is that, over time, Van Valkenburgh's monsters will become objects of great public affection.  Far too big to ever fade into the landscape, they'll be embraced for their sheer chutzpah weirdness.  That kind of eccentricity, however, will not be possible if they ever became common in placement.  For that reason alone, no matter what efficiencies or cost savings they may promise, Maggie Daley Park should remain the refuge beyond which the 13 light-limbed behemoths are never allowed to roam.

Next:  Mistah Burnham—He Dead - Michael Van Valkenburgh Rethinks the Chicago Lakefront Park, Part III

Previously:  Strongest at the Corners - Michael Van Valkenburgh Rethinks the Chicago Lakefront Park, Part II

Sunday, June 28, 2015

Strongest at the Corners: At Maggie Daley, Michael Van Valkenburgh rethinks the Chicago Lakefront Park - Part One

The new Maggie Daley Park is both a major addition to Chicago's lakefront and a spur to questions as to what constitutes good park design.  This post, the first of four, explores the park's best features.
click images for larger view (recommended)
Maggie Daley Park had a very successful "soft" opening last December, but it didn't feel right to write about a new park while it was still frozen, brown and unblooming.  Now summer's come. It's finally a good time to take stock, and note how architect Michael Van Valkenburgh's design is both a clear break from traditional design along Chicago's downtown lakefront - and more than a little weird.
 On a Saturday morning earlier this month, the 26-acre, $60 million park had it's official dedication, with Mayor Rahm Emanuel, former Mayor Richard M. Daley, his daughter Nora and other luminaries in attendance.  500 young voices drawn from the Chicago Childrens and After School Matters choirs, all clad in bright yellow shirts, joined the Third Coast Percussion Ensemble in performances that concluded with the world premiere performance  of a new work by Augusta Read Thomas honoring the legacy of the park's dedicatee, former Chicago First Lady, the late Maggie Daley.

There are many good things to say about Maggie Daley Park.  Primary among these is that it's not a museum building.  Richard M. Daley had worked with his usual arrogant swagger to force a new structure for the Chicago Children's Museum into Maggie Daley Park's predecessor, Daley Bi-Centennial Plaza, a serene, classically-styled 1970's park dating constructed atop a multi-level parking garage.  Daley and his minions sneered at the park dedicated to his late father as a "nowhere."  In fact, it had finally evolved into a quite lovely, serene, classically-styled refuge to the the hyperactivity of Millennium Park, the instant icon opened across Columbus Drive to the west in 2004.

Major water leaks into the underground garage forced the park to be completely stripped away to make repairs.  Daley saw that as a grand opportunity to cater to the monument-building ambitions of a Pritzker family heiress by giving a public park over to a private museum.  The ensuing battle was ugly and prolonged, with Daley smearing construction opponents as racist child-haters.  The coalition in favor of keeping the park, "Open, Free and Clear", however, was both broad and deep.  The opposition poisoned the well for the museum's already anemic fund-raising skills and - combined with  a major economic crash - ultimately persuaded the Children's Museum to stay at Navy Pier and improve its facilities there.
Maggie Daley Park under construction
photography courtesy Bob Johnson
Enter Michael van Valkenburgh, whose firm, Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates, may be the most prominent landscape architects at work in the United States today.

This June was a double-dip for Van Valkenburgh in Chicago. Just a week before the official dedication at Maggie Daley, there was the official opening of The 606 Bloomingdale Trail, an abandoned rail line converted into a nearly 3 mile long park, for which Van Valkenburgh was lead designer.
(seriously dude, click for larger view)
By design, the most successful sections of Maggie Daley Park are its most active, at opposing corners of the 26-acre site.   To the southeast, just north of Monroe is the three-and-a-half acre "Play Garden", a hilly sequence of family-friendly spaces dominated by the Tower Bridge, a bright-orange. 30-foot high suspension bridge set within a "Slide Crater" with a kid-friendly soft surface and a seating area for parents to relax while keeping an eye on their offspring.
There's also a boat to climb on . . .
. . . a half-buried whale . . .
. . . and even a lighthouse . .  .
Also now open is the "Enchanted Forest" with dead tree trunks planted upside-down to form arches.  A subversive homage to the nearly 900 trees ripped out when the old park was destroyed?
At the opposite, northwest corner of the park, along Randolph, is what, in the winter, is the skating ribbon, wrapping around two 40-foot climbing walls.
The geometrically irregular structures are covered in an explosion of multi-colored footholds, and at their end point rear up like the prow of a ship.
The 27,000 square-foot ribbon offers over 60% more area than a standard NFL hockey rink, stretched out to a nearly quarter-mile length that can accommodate 700 skaters at a time.  Using the ribbon is free, and skates can be rented for a modest fee.
Its first season was so successful it attracted 70,000 skaters and raked in nearly $600,000 in equipment rentals.
Brightly illuminated at night, the ribbon and climbing  walls are almost like a second sun, inserting a saucer of light at the feet of the black cat dark facades of the soaring skyscrapers that form the park's backdrop.
But now the ice is melted, not by the bright lights but by the warmth of summer.  The ribbon has become a running track and host to other warm-weather activities.

These are the high places of Maggie Daley Park.  But what of the valleys that lie between?  And, seriously, what's the deal with these?

Next:  Unleash the Mutant Mantises - At Maggie Daley Park, Michael Van Valkenburgh rethinks the Chicago lakefront park, Part Two.

Sunday, May 31, 2015

Bum Steer: Will the city let Gibson's Steakhouse Ride Herd over Mariano Park??

click images for larger view
[Update, June 26] In his Friday letter to his constituents, 42nd Ward Alderman Brendan Reilly stated the while the Chicago Park District will make the ultimate choice of winning bid for food service at Mariano Park, Reilly declared he "will not support a liquor license in Mariano Park.  Further, I do not support a cooking operation in the park, which would require a much larger structure and far more frequent food deliveries . . . "

You can read Reilly's complete statement at the end of this post here.

[Update, June 1] We now have Gibson's handout on their plans for Mariano Park, including a rendering.  See below.

Last February, we wrote about the threat to Mariano Park, a small slice of urban refuge amidst the glitzy bars and restaurants of the "Viagra Triangle", centered by a small pavilion of brick and polychrome terra cotta trim designed by architect Birch Burdette Long in 1899.

This past February, the City of Chicago put out a Concession Opportunity of Notice of Availability for the park, with rumors swirling that Whispers Cafe, which has operated a concession there for 13 years and won awards for the quality of its care of the park, would be replaced by Gibson's Bar and Steakhouse, whose iconic Chicago restaurant is just across the street.

Spring has come, and with it a pleasant surprise.  Whispers Cafe is back for the summer, and the park is again drawing people to relax in an informal setting under its tall trees.
Whispers Cafe contract expires in November, however, and Gibson's appears to be back in the picture.  The Park District is already listing several dozen bids submitted for Mariano Park.  In addition to long-time tenant Whispers, there are bidders include Goddess and Grocer, New York's Shake Shack chain, the Trib's RedEye, several companies hiding behind professional bid-submittal firms, and even the Chicago Park District itself.  Only one, however, seems have to already created a corporation for the project: Restaurant Holdings, LLC dba Gibson Holdings - Mariano Park LLC.

[Update]: The Park District reached out to Curbed Chicago to clarify that some companies on the webpage registered to get the application but have not actually submitted a bid.
Last week, there was word of a public meeting at which a Gibson's representative would present their plans for Mariano Park if/when it won rights to it.  Quickly, however, the public meeting was restated as a private meeting open only to residents of  the 30-story residential building at 100 East Bellevue.

Inquiries made last week both to Gibson's and to the office of 42nd Ward Alderman Brendan Reilly as to when the plans might be made public and public hearings held have, as yet, gone unanswered.

So have I seen Gibson's plan?  No, I have not.  Then how do I know they're going to make major changes?  I don't, but this kind of secrecy is usually a red flag.  Especially in this case, in light both of Gibson's heavy clout and history of territorial expansion into public space, and  of how another public oasis, Connors Park just down the street, was turned over to Argo Tea to construct a private building that takes up all but the narrowest part of the park.  At Connors, assurances that the outdoor seating area would continue to be a public park were undercut both by a design that made the patio appear to be a proprietary annex to the restaurant and by area residents sometimes being asked to leave by Argo staff.   New signage was installed to re-declare the park a public amenity, but the new Connors remains a large tea house with a sliver of a park attached to it.
click image for larger view (recommended)

So, courtesy of Gibson's own handout, we now know it's intentions for Mariano Park, and it's pretty much as expected.  The park's historic charm and open space will be eviscerated to create a commercial opportunity.

Where the Birch Burdette Long pavilion is now, Gibson's plans to erect "the Pavilion at Mariano Park."  Not to be confused with the actual historic pavilion that has given the park its character for over a century,  it's projected to be a glassy new structure of 400 square feet (it looks larger), taking up most of the larger southern end of the park.  The Long pavilion itself is to be stripped of any functional purpose and turned into a glassed-in waxworks "to display a 6'0" tall vintage coffee roaster of the same era as the pavilion itself." What Gibson's thinks that era was is anybody's guess, as their handout identifies the Long pavilion as "from the 1920's" - they couldn't even be bothered to do the simplest research on the building's history.  In its new location - assuming the construction crew doesn't somehow "accidentally" wreck it beyond repair during its relocation - it becomes a useless object, obstructing the clear central view that has always existing at the north end of the park, between the trees, towards the pavilion.

At least when Argo's teahouse building took over Connors Park, they left the northernmost sliver mostly intact,  At Mariano, Gibson's uses it as a dumping ground to get the historic pavilion out of the way of their big new glass money machine.

On Restaurant Business Magazine's  2014 list of the Top 100 Independent Restaurants, the Gibson chain had nearly half of the eateries listed for Chicago, taking in over $65 million.  Gibson's and Hugo's Frog Bar, with a combined take of nearly $40 million, are the dining juggernaut of the Viagra Triangle - no one else comes close.

Gibson's is a prized -and very powerful - Chicago institution.  And incredibly successful.  Do we really need to hand over Mariano to them as well?  Patrons already have a wide selection of high-end outdoor dining all along the perimeter of the park.  There's Carmine's across the street to the east . . .
. . . and Tavern on Rush . . .
. .  . Hugo's Frog Bar next to Gibson's . . .
There's al fresco tables at trendy Nico Osteria kitty-corner southeast of the park, and even at Corner Bakery to the northeast . . .
Gibson's, of course, already has its own generous complement of outdoor tables . . .
In 2012, the city gave Gibson's six feet of a public street, narrowing Bellevue Place's 36-foot width  to allow Gibson's to construct a new sidewalk next to the restaurant's patio seating.  Some reports say Gibson's originally proposed taking over the entire street.

You know want the Viagra Triangle needs?  Not heavily-trafficked streets or sidewalks cluttered with tables and pedestrians trying to squeeze through.  That's pretty much the whole Viagra Triangle, in a nutshell.

You know what the Triangle needs?  Open public space.  A place where, after walking down one over-crowded, hyperactive block after another, you stumble upon what an oasis must feel like when encountered in the desert.  Tall, green trees, air and sun, and seats you don't have to ask a hostess for permission to sit in.  You can stop, breathe and refresh. And, if you want, buy an orange juice, or let your kid gaze through the glass and pick his own flavor of gelato.
That's what Mariano Park is,  a small civic treasure.  The Birch Burdette Long pavilion is a graceful, quirky, century-old slice of Chicago history in a place where history has been all but erased. These are things that should neither be sacrificed, nor "improved" to become indistinguishable from everything around it. 

As David Mamet once famously wrote, everybody needs money - that's why they call it money.  You can never feel you have enough, and that's the basic impulse I fear is behind the bid process at Mariano Park.  By all accounts, Whispers Cafe has done a superlative job during its decade-and-a-half stewardship, but really, what's that, when the clouted smell the meat a-cookin' and can't see the trees for the dollar signs?

This is a debate that needs to come out from behind closed doors.  The Park District needs to disclose its criteria for assessing the bids, and Gibson's needs to make their proposal public.  This isn't merely a financial decision; it's a civic, quality-of-life issue.  The basic character of Mariano Park must be preserved, along with the Birch Burdette Long pavilion.  (The fountain from the 1990's is another matter.)  There should be no new construction that clutters up the park, and Mariano should not be allowed to become little more than just another depersonalized outpost of some deep-pocketed chain.
Mariano Park has character, space, and grace - rare qualities that are becoming in even shorter supply as Viagra Triangle developers continue to ramp up neighborhood density and the price-points of the encroaching shops.  That Corner Bakery? It's about to disappear in a major renovation into an upscale retail building.  The Viagra Triangle is party-in-the-fast-lane, bigger than life.  Bigger even than the streaks at Gibson's.  Mariano Park, alone, is comfortably-paced and human-scaled.

Mariano Park is alright.  Don't screw it up.

June 26th statement on Mariano Park by 42nd Ward Alderman Brendan Reilly:

A number of neighborhood residents have contacted my office recently with concerns regarding the Chicago Park District concession at Mariano Park. I am writing to provide you with some important details about the coffee concession - which is under the sole discretion of the Chicago Park District, which operates independently of the City Council.

For over 10 years, Whispers Café has operated at Mariano Park under a concession agreement with the Chicago Park District. This agreement is about to expire, which prompted the Chicago Park District to solicit Requests for Proposals and competitive bids for the concession operation in Mariano Park.

The Chicago Park District and their management team are now reviewing competitive bids and will choose the next operator in Mariano Park. As Alderman, I do not play a role in the selection of the concession or operator for Mariano Park; I can only advocate and provide input on the matter.

It is my understanding that roughly 10 bids were submitted for the concession - including "Shake Shack," "Gibson's on behalf of Ralph Lauren" and "Whisper's Café." I also understand some of the bids submitted to the Park District would call for prepared meals and liquor.

As Alderman, I do play a key role in the liquor licensing process in the 42nd Ward. Please note that I will not support a liquor license in Mariano Park. Further, I do not support a cooking operation in the Park, which would require a much larger structure and far more frequent food deliveries and larger volumes of trash that accompany a prepared meal program.

I also have concerns regarding the larger building footprints that have been proposed for Mariano Park. I believe that the concession structure should be of a size similar to the existing, full footprint of the coffeehouse and outside vending envelope in the Park. I am sharing these concerns with Superintendent Mike Kelly of the Chicago Park District.

I strongly encourage you to contact the Chicago Park District to communicate your concerns regarding the future Mariano Park concession, as this is the agency with the jurisdiction over such matters.

You can­ call the Chicago Park District at: (312) 742-7529 or e-mail Mr. Michael Kelly, the General Superintendent and CEO of the Chicago Park District at:

It is my pleasure and honor to serve as 42nd Ward Alderman. I look forward to working with you in the future to help keep downtown Chicago a great place to live, work and play.

Some Links:

Chicago Park District Mariano Park Concession Opportunity webpage

Save Mariano Park website

Mariano Park Advisory Council Facebook page

Read More:
Not (Birch Burdette) Long for This World?  Century-Old Mariano Park Out for Bid.
Destroying a Park to Save It: The Tea House that Ate Connors Park

Monday, May 25, 2015

The Construction of Chicago's New Riverwalk in Photos

This weekend, the City of Chicago opened the first two blocks of its new $100 million Riverwalk.  We'll be writing more that - and exploring it in pictures - soon, but first up, here's a photo essay on the ambitious multi-year construction.

Click the images to see them larger - recommended.

click images for larger view (recommended)(seriously)
In the beginning was the leftovers from the Wacker Drive reconstruction project.  At the beginning of the new century, $200 million was spent rebuilding the double-check highway that huges the river from Michigan Avenue to Randolph.  While the upper sidewalk levels were given a handsome makeover, there was no money to fix up the lower level, which remained an austere urban amenity.

In the summer, the city found restaurants willing to open temporary outposts.
Some were more elaborate than others . . .
Still, the riverwalk remained sparsely populated.  At night, especially, it seemed an abandoned, vaguely threatening place where the brave and hardy could contemplate existence.
In March of 2013, Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel announced a deal which would see the U.S. Department of Transportation loan the City of Chicago $100 million to rebuilt the Riverwalk.Construction began in September of that year, and continued through two successive Chicago winters. 

According to an excellent account on the Walsh Construction website of the challenges faced in rebuilding the Riverwalk, the first step was to completely demolish all the existing sidewalks.
March, 2014:
Just behind those arches are cars speeding down the mini-expressway that is the lower level of Wacker Drive. 

A continuous steel sheet pile retaining wall was constructed across from the existing dock wall.
2014, May: 
A new edge was constructed 25 feet into the 200-foot-wide river, with steel piles pounded into the river at 10-foot intervals.  Large pumps removed the water, and tons of crushed stone brought in to replace it.
A fleet of 12 barges filled the river to support the project. In July, a 50-foot barge and its ten-ton boom lift sank to the river bottom, requiring divers to go down and secure cables so the crane could be lifted back to the surface.
One of the key features of the new Riverwalk is that, for the first time, there are connections beneath both the State and Dearborn street bridges. Previously, each block was isolated, and you had to walk back to Upper Wacker to get to the next one.
Each underbridge passage was built atop four, six-foot diameter caissons sunk to a depth of 75 feet. Great care was taken not to pierce the tunnel for the State Street subway, although some undocumented phone equipment necessitated a one-week delay while a caisson was drilled at a different location a few feet away.
2014, August:
 See Also:  Pour le Concrete: Chicago's New Riverwalk Emerges
Because constructing the connecting walkways required opening the bridges under which they passed, each one had a one-week deadline for completion, requiring crews to work 24 hours a day.

 Underbridge pasage
2015, January: Winter II
 The River Theater takes shape.  It is scheduled to open in June.
2015, March:
 2015, May: Workers put finishing touches to the Dearborn Street gateway for Saturday, May 23rd's opening.
State to Dearborn, The Marina
Dearborn to Clark, The Cove

Read More:
Finishing the Chicago Riverwalk, Part Two: Opera on the River? (or Maybe just Some Jazz).
Finishing the Riverwalk, Conclusion: Swimming Holes and Wolf Calls